Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística

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Brazilian Territorial Area


The estimates for the resident population in the 5,570 municipalities produced by the IBGE take into account the current status of the Brazilian Policital-Administrative Division – DPA. According to the political-administrative structure in force on July 1, 2015, reference date of the 2015, Population Estimates, the re-processing of the territorial areas encompassed the changes of the municipal territorial boundaries that took place after the 2010 Population Census and practiced in the Population Estimates between 2011 and 2015, as well as other territorial adjustments that took place in this period.

The total value of the Brazilian surface was kept at 8.515.767,049 km2, as published in the Brazilian Official Gazette of no. 118 of June 22, 2016, according to Resolution no. 02, of June 21, 2016.

Main reasons for the Changes in the state and municipal files:

  • Legal or judicial nature;
  • Changes in the territorial pertinence of same localities by means of legal decisions (Injunctions and Warrants) or by legal opinion of the Federal Prosecutor in the IBGE;
  • Cartographic changes or adjustments officially informed to the IBGE by state bodies in charge of the political-administrative division, under the scope of existing agreements;
  • Cartographic adjustments and refinements of the outlines of state and municipal polygons;
  • Technological innovations coming from significant improvement in geotechnologies and cartographic input for the identification and cartographic representation of state and municipal polygons;
  • Incorporation of the outlines of international boders of Brazil with neighbor countries Uruguay, Argentina and Paraguay (partially), as established by the Second Brazilian Border Demarcation Commission - SCDL, from the Ministry of Foreign Relations, which is in charge of demarcating international borders of Brazil, available at

Information on the methodology for the calculation of areas

The areas made available were calculated with the software GEOMEDIA, using the Albers Conic Projection, since this is the appropriate equivalent projection for that purpose, with the following standards for the country:

  • Longitude of origin: -54°
  • Latitude of origin: -12°
  • Standard parallel 1: -2°
  • Standard parallel 2: -22°

The reference system used was the Geocentric Reference System for the Americas (SIRGAS2000), according to IBGE's President Resolution no. 1/2005, available at

At each historical phase, the definition of the geodetic system of reference is aligned with the state of the art of methods and techniques available. With the advent of global navigation systems (i.e. positioning) by satellites (GNSS – Global Navigation Satellite Systems), the adoption of a new reference system - geocentric, compatible with the precision of the corresponding positioning methods and with systems adopted around the world - became mandatory.


Amazonas is still the biggest state in Brazil, with 1,559,148.890km², surpassing the areas of the South and Southeast Regions together. Sergipe, with 21,918.493km² is the state with the lowest territorial area.

The biggest Brazilian municipality, however, is located in ParáAltamira, with 159.533,255km². It is bigger than several Brazilian states.

The municipality of Santa Cruz de Minas, in Minas Gerais, with an area of 3.565km² is the smallest in the country. The second smallest one is Águas de São Pedro, in São Paulo, with an area of 3.612km². Their areas are smaller than that of Fernando de Noronha Island, state district of Pernambuco, which is 17.017km² large.

The outline of international borders of Brazil with neighbor countries Uruguay and Argentina were completed updated as established by the Second Brazilian Border Demarcation Commission - SCDL and available at Limited to the stretch of the state of Paraná, the border with Paraguay was partially updated in this edition of the Mash.

Incorporated by the State Constitution of 1988 to the area of the state of Rio Grande do Sul in 2002, the area of Lagoa Mirim changed to 2,832.194km², due to adjustments in the border with Uruguay.